Does the very nature of conducting clinical trials in developing countries make it unethical?

  1. Does the very nature of conducting clinical trials in developing countries make it unethical? Identify the various stakeholders involved in such clinical testing and the reasons they use to defend or oppose such trials. Clearly state why and why not these clinical trials are ethical. Use examples from the article you have located and the assigned readings as supporting evidence. Look at both the individual’s needs and best interests and those of the community, and those who will ultimately benefit from this new drug/vaccine/device.What changes would you recommend to make this process of international clinical trials more transparent, equitable and more strictly regulated? Who should do/oversee the regulating? How do you envision your suggestions being enforced?
  2. Is the case strong enough to recommend discontinuing all animal research? Why or why not? Explain your response and provide specific factors (time, events, new information, etc.) that may influence you to change your position.
  3. Genetic engineering will transform our world in the next decade and is in fact already irreversibly altering our world. What do you think of Dr. Doudna’s call for a pause in using CRISPR technology in a clinical setting? Is this a good idea, why or why not and how would the world enforce this moratorium? The intersection of biotechnology, genetic engineering and bioethics is a constantly shifting landscape. What are the ethical considerations that these scientists need to be addressing?
  4. Read and answer the following questions.…
  5. Select one of the seven fundamental unsolved questions
  6. In your own words, explain this fundamental, unsolved question
  7. Now do some research using the EC Library and/or Google Scholar to determine if this is STILL a question or if there is some newer research that addresses this concern.
  8. Describe the results of your research – is there now an answer? Has the question changed? Is there a partial resolution or no change at all?
  9. RE-write the question, either as a new question, a lingering question or a solution.
  10. Use APA style referencing and in-text citations to identify at least two research article you have used in your work on this discussion post.
  11. Identify two natural science disciplines and explain how the central dogma of one impacts the other. Explain how you see changes in this dogma/core theory is now affecting research and discoveries in the other discipline.
  12. Select an important recent discovery from those you have read about or researched especially in the emerging fields. We will be using the term “discovery” in a broad sense, research the interdisciplinary fields and you will find plenty of “discoveries”.
    • Identify and explain the discovery you are going to be examining
    • Clearly indicate the two (at least) fields of the sciences that have enabled the researchers to make this discovery.
    • Show how each field impacts the research in the other. What did they each bring to the research to enable this discovery?
    • Explain how a more traditional scientific approach may have not allowed the same depth and breadth of discovery, but the integration of fields has lead to more creative and expansive research opportunities.
  13. The braking down of silos and bridging of theories has accelerated the growth of discoveries and brought interdisciplinary researchers into the forefront of the “new sciences”. Select one new interdisciplinary science and describe and define its area of study.
  14. Select one developing or underdeveloped country from the Eastern Europe, Central or South America, Asia or Africa. Use these web sites to identify your country. Please try to select a variety of places. The discussion will be dull indeed if we all select Brazil or China! Your instructor may award extra points for selecting a more obscure location!
    • Least developed countries: UN classification
    • List of Developing Countries from the International Statistical Institute
    • What are its natural resources? This can include fresh water, arable land as well as things like coal, diamonds, oil, minerals (the rare earths are extremely important to technology products)
    • What are the ecological/environmental l challenges? deforestation, desertification disappearing species, loss of biodiversity, pollution to water, air and soil, impact of climate change such as rising sea levels etc.
    • What is being done and by who to protect the environment, repair the damage, stave off the effects of climate change or address the items you found in # 2
    • What is being done to allow the country to benefit from its resources in a responsible way? By who? (this maybe the U.N., developed countries, or NGO’s)
  15. Visit the following web site and read the information available there. Scroll down through the left side menu and select “Documents and Resources”. Follow this to “Documents” then select “Publications” then select “New Perspectives”. These are brief publications about the activities of this UN Environmental Program. Select one of the perspectives publications, open it and read it.
    • Indigenous Peoples And Their Communities (UNEP)
    For your initial post write a short summary of the issue you read. Tell us what is the concern discussed in this issue of the publication. How were indigenous people impacted by this and what were the solutions proposed?
  16. First visit the EPA, The United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Climate Impacts” web page and read the information posted on this page.
    Then select one sector either a location such as the Coasts or a concern such as Human Health. Read all the information on this topic. Each topic will have several links listed under the title such as: Climate Impacts on Coastal Areas
    Be sure to follow each link and gather the information available on that topic. Next you should be examining efforts to address climate change. Go to the “Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change, Report in Brief” (a report from the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine) to examine the efforts being made to help communities and regions adjust to the this “new normal” as the impacts of climate change are being realized. You can read this report on the web site but if you want to download a pdf of the report you will need to sign-up, giving your name, email and creating a password. This is optional. This site also has related reports that maybe helpful in your research.
    Do additional research on solutions suggested or tried for your topic. Include:
    • Post the location, region or concern you selected in the title of your initial post.
    • Create a clear organized and complete summary of the climate impacts on your selected topic, area etc.
    • Discuss the worst case and best case scenarios predicted for this topic.
    • Discuss the possible solutions or adaptations you have found
    • Discuss the additional research information you have located and how this supports the EPA efforts or goes in a different direction and why
    • Evaluate these possible solutions and the pros and cons of each
    • In your opinion do you see any of these proposals as a viable solution; why or why not? Support your response with information from the research you cited.
  17. Futurist – this always seemed like the best job in the world. You got paid to read, watch movies, surf the web and think about what could be the next big thing or what life will be like long after we’re gone. Nobody could ever actually hold you accountable for your predictions, they were just predictions after all, a best guess. This is your chance to try your hand at being a futurist for the natural sciences. We have seen two videos that focus on the disruptive nature of social media. As Clay Shirky says “Each of us is simultaneously an individual person and a global publisher.” When considering his observations on social media and those on the scientific community described by Michael Nielson, please think about where you see the future of the natural sciences in light of these observations.
    • How do you see the ideas of Clay Shirky and Michael Nielson converging and diverging when looking at the future of the natural sciences? Mr. Nielson seems to be hopeful but guarded in his predictions of how open source sharing of scientific research could revolutionize the fields. Mr. Shirky is more of the opinion that the revolution has happened and now we need to catch up or be left behind. Could this be true for the sciences as well? What do you see as the future for the scientific fields you discussed in our paper in light of the opinions of these authors?

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