Draw a flow diagram of the unit operations involved in sugar refining and at each step write a brief sentence explaining what is occurring.

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Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) has resulted in coastal areas being closed to shellfish harvesting in many instances. Design an educational poster explaining the risks of PSP. Your target audience is 18-25 years of age with at least college level education. The poster cannot be larger than one page (8.5” x 11”). Make sure to include the causes of PSP, what to avoid, and the primary symptoms of PSP. (8 marks)

Draw a flow diagram of the unit operations involved in sugar refining and at each step write a brief sentence explaining what is occurring. Use the information fromSKIL site to develop your flow chart. Since the information does not start from the beginning of the refining process, please include an extraction step (extraction is explained in your textbook). Either milling or diffusion is acceptable for extraction from sugar cane. Make sure to indicate the direction of flow through each of the unit operations and the by-products produced. (8 marks)

In the supermarket, granulated sugar may be sold packaged in a box, in a gable-top carton (like a milk carton), or in a pouch. Compare 2 of these types of packaging for this type of product. Describe an advantage and disadvantage associated with each of the 2 packages you chose (make sure to specify which 2 types you chose). This question is referring to bulk granulated sugar only. Do not consider sugar packets, sugar cubes, powdered sugar, liquid sugar, brown sugar or sugar substitutes.(5 marks)

A heat exchanger is used to warm apple cider using steam as the heat source. The cider is heated from an initial temperature of 4°C to a final temperature of 65°C. The steam enters the heat exchanger as 50% quality steam and exits as water condensate at 85°C. Calculate the mass of steam required to heat 150 kg of cider. (For the cider, assume the Cp=3.651 kJ/kg°C, and latent heat=280.18 kJ/kg.) (5 marks)

a) Graph the following data on semi-log OR regular graph paper. Determine the D-value using the graph. Show your work. (5 marks)
Survivors (CFU/mL) Time (Minutes)
270000 100
12000 150
600 200
30 250
b) How long would it take to obtain a 3-D reduction in microbial load? (1 mark)

a) Graph the following data on regular OR semi-log graph paper (graph both thermal death time curves on the same sheet of paper). Use the graph to determine the z-value for each organism. Show your work. (6 marks)
Organism A
D-Value (Minutes) Temperature (°F)
700 110
60 120
5 130
0.4 140
0.04 150

Organism B
D-Value (Minutes) Temperature (°F)
500 100
150 120
50 140
15 160
4.5 180
b) Which organism is more heat-sensitive? Briefly explain your choice. (2 marks)

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