Health Perception/Management




 Health Perception/Management

·          Predominant health problems: Compare at least one health problem to a credible statistic (CDC, county, or state).

·          Immunization rates (age appropriate).

·          Appropriate death rates and causes, if applicable.

·          Prevention programs (dental, fire, fitness, safety, etc.): Does the community think these are sufficient?

·          Available health professionals, health resources within the community, and usage.

·          Common referrals to outside agencies.



·          Indicators of nutrient deficiencies.

·          Obesity rates or percentages: Compare to CDC statistics.

·          Affordability of food/available discounts or food programs and usage (e.g., WIC, food boxes, soup kitchens, meals-on-wheels, food stamps, senior discounts, employee discounts, etc.).

·          Availability of water (e.g., number and quality of drinking fountains).

·          Fast food and junk food accessibility (vending machines).

·          Evidence of healthy food consumption or unhealthy food consumption (trash, long lines, observations, etc.).

·          Provisions for special diets, if applicable.

·          For schools (in addition to above):

o   Nutritional content of food in cafeteria and vending machines: Compare to ARS 15-242/The Arizona Nutrition Standards (or other state standards based on residence)

o   Amount of free or reduced lunch


 Elimination (Environmental Health Concerns)

·          Common air contaminants’ impact on the community.

·          Noise.

·          Waste disposal.

·          Pest control: Is the community notified of pesticides usage?

·          Hygiene practices (laundry services, hand washing, etc.).

·          Bathrooms: Number of bathrooms; inspect for cleanliness, supplies, if possible.

·          Universal precaution practices of health providers, teachers, members (if applicable).

·          Temperature controls (e.g., within buildings, outside shade structures).

·          Safety (committee, security guards, crossing guards, badges, locked campuses).



·          Community fitness programs (gym discounts, P.E., recess, sports, access to YMCA, etc.).

·          Recreational facilities and usage (gym, playgrounds, bike paths, hiking trails, courts, pools, etc.).

·          Safety programs (rules and regulations, safety training, incentives, athletic trainers, etc.).

·          Injury statistics or most common injuries.

·          Evidence of sedentary leisure activities (amount of time watching TV, videos, and computer).

·          Means of transportation.



·          Sleep routines/hours of your community: Compare with sleep hour standards (from National Institutes of Health [NIH]).

·          Indicators of general “restedness” and energy levels.

·          Factors affecting sleep:

o   Shift work prevalence of community members

o   Environment (noise, lights, crowding, etc.)

o   Consumption of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and drugs

o   Homework/Extracurricular activities

o   Health issues



·          Primary language: Is this a communication barrier?

·          Educational levels: For geopolitical communities, use and compare the city in which your community belongs with the national statistics.

·          Opportunities/Programs:

o   Educational offerings (in-services, continuing education, GED, etc.)

o   Educational mandates (yearly in-services, continuing education, English learners, etc.)

-Special education programs (e.g., learning disabled, emotionally disabled, physically disabled, and gifted)

·          Library or computer/Internet resources and usage.

·          Funding resources (tuition reimbursement, scholarships, etc.).


·          Age levels.

·          Programs and activities related to community building (strengthening the community).

·          Community history.

·          Pride indicators: Self-esteem or caring behaviors.

·          Published description (pamphlets, Web sites, etc.).



·          Interaction of community members (e.g., friendliness, openness, bullying, prejudices, etc.).

·          Vulnerable populations:

o   Why are they vulnerable?

o   How does this impact health?

·          Power groups (church council, student council, administration, PTA, and gangs):

o   How do they hold power?

o   Positive or negative influence on community?

·          Harassment policies/discrimination policies.

·          Relationship with broader community:

o   Police

o   Fire/EMS (response time)

o   Other (food drives, blood drives, missions, etc.)


·          Relationships and behavior among community members.

·          Educational offerings/programs (e.g., growth and development, STD/AIDS education, contraception, abstinence, etc.).

·          Access to birth control.

·          Birth rates, abortions, and miscarriages (if applicable).

·          Access to maternal child health programs and services (crisis pregnancy center, support groups, prenatal care, maternity leave,