Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast


  1. Discuss the hormonal influences on breast tissue during the normal mentstrual cycle. Why is this important when scheduling a breast MRI? (max 500 words)
  2. Discuss the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes. What are the implications for a patient who has a harmful BRCA gene mutation, and how are such patients managed clinically? (max 1000 words)
  3. MRI can be used to assess breast implant intergrity. Discuss intracapsular and extracapsular rupture and their MRI appearances (max 500 words)

here some references if u might need

Reference 1: Kuhl CK, Schmutzler RK, Leutner CC et al, Breast MR imaging screening in 192 women proved or suspected to be carriers of a breast cancer susceptibility gene: preliminary results. Radiology 2000; 215:267-279
Reference 2 and 3: Raza S, Birdwell RL, et al, Specialty Imaging Breast MRI: A Comprehensive Guide, 2010
Reference 4: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Press Release dated 26 Jan 2011
Reference 5: Hersh M., Imaging of the Dense Breast: Breast Density and Breast Cancer Risk, Applied Radiology, 2004)
Reference 6: Berg WA, Gutierrez L, Ness Aiver MS, et al,Diagnostic accuracy of mammography, clinical examination, US and MR imaging in preoperative assessment of breast cancer, Radiology, 2004; 233:830-849)
Reference 7: ACR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Breast
Reference 8: Morris EA, Liberman L, Breast MRI: Diagnosis and Intervention (2005).
Reference 9:Lehman CD, DeMartini W , Anderson BO; Edge, SB, Indications for Breast MRI in Patient with Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: Impact of Breast MRI on Sugical Management and Recurrence rates J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2009;7(2):193-201
Reference 10: Delill JP, Slanetz PJ, Yeh ED et al “Hormone replacement therapy in post menopausal women: Breast tissue perfusion determined with MR imaging – initial observations” Radiology 2005 235, 36 – 451
Reference 11: Delille JP, Slanetz PJ, Yeh ED et al “Physiologic changes in breast magnetic resonance imaging during the menstrual cycle: perfusion imaging, signal enhancement and influence of the T1 relaxation time of breast tissue” Breast J 2005; 11: 236 – 241
Reference 12: Muller-Schimpfle M, Ohmenhouser K, Stoll P et al “Menstrual cycle and age: influence on parenchymal contrast enhnacement in MR imaging of the breast” Radiology 1997 203: 145-149
Reference 13: Ellis RL “Optimal timing of breast MRI examinations for premenopausal women who do not have a normal menstrual cycle” AJR 2009 193:1738 – 1740
Reference 14: Morris E. A, Liberman L. Breast MRI: Diagnosis and Intervention (2004

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